Heritage Crafts

Marionette making

The making of traditional wood and string marionette puppets.
Craft category
Historic area of significance
China – possibly from as far back as 200BC. India – Mahabharata mentions puppetry probably marionettes (dated from the 9th century BCE, it reached the written form in the 4th century BCE). Tamil texts from the 2nd century BCE onwards mention dolls moved by strings. Sicily – from the 13th Century France – 1800s, Lyon, their most famous puppet Guignol Salzburg Marionette Theatre, Austria – founded in 1913 Prague, Czech Republic – 18th Century? USA, early to mid 20th Century Germany
Area practiced currently
London, Wales, Norwich
Origin in the UK
There is evidence of puppetry taking place in the UK from the 1400s.
Current No. of professionals (Main income)
Current No. of professionals (Side income)
6-10 *50 members of PuppeteerUK describe themselves as having skills in Marionettes, but it is likely that these are mainly operators not makers
Current No. of trainees
Current total No. of serious amateur makers
Current No. of leisure makers
50-100 (estimate)


There is evidence of puppetry originally taking place in the UK around 600 years ago in the 1400s. The earliest recorded puppet show took place at Bartholomew Fair around 1600. In the 1700s, there are records of Italians travelling in the UK and performing with puppets, mostly likely marionettes (string puppets).

The 19th and early 20th century saw a renaissance of marionettes led by W.H. Whanslaw and Waldo Lancaster.

More recently the tradition was continued with John Wright Marionettes (1952 in South Africa, then in Hampstead London by 1957) who then founded the Little Angel Theatre by the late John Wright and his wife Lyndie in 1961. Marionette making is still vibrant in Europe, particularly Germany.

There are five remaining theatres in the UK with specially designed marionette bridges:

  • The Harlequin (Britain’s First Permanent Puppet Theatre) – Colwyn Bay, N. Wales. Opened 1958.
  • The Puppet Theatre Barge, London – is one of the only remaining theatres dedicated primarily to string puppets / marionettes.
  • The Norwich Puppet Theatre, Norfolk
  • The Little Angel Theatre, London
  • Upfront Theatre, Penrith
  • Purves Puppets

Most string puppet makers are associated with puppet theatres.


  • Drafting and designing
  • Wood carving
  • Joint making
  • Treating and finishing
  • Marionette control design
  • Stringing


  • Ornamental wood carving
  • Puppet making

Issues affecting the viability

  • Training and recruitment issues: Lack of professional training opportunities; lack of opportunities to practice as there is a limited number of productions; few remaining teachers / practitioners.
  • Demand issues: Marionette shows largely require 3-6 performers as a minimum and require specific staging. Many producers and theatres will only be able to programme 2-person shows due to lack of funding / rising overheads. So the skills in making marionettes are not as in demand as in the past.
  • Market issues: Lack of demand to programme marionette shows in favour of more contemporary forms of puppetry
  • Small business issues: These reflect the general challenges to funding within the arts sector
  • Ageing workforce: The remaining experts / teachers are all ageing and/or semi-retired.
  • Global and geopolitical issues: Challenges to UK artists to travel with shows due to Brexit and having to transport specialist equipment.

Support organisations

  • Puppeteers UK
  • The British Puppet and Model Theatre Guild
  • Puppet Centre
  • Curious School of Puppetry
  • Little Angel Theatre

Training organisations

There are no formal training opportunities specifically in marionette making.

Short courses

The following offer short courses and other opportunities to learn marionette making skills:

  • Curious School of Puppetry – covers some marionette performance skills, however not making.
  • John Roberts – Puppet Craft UK – marionette carving courses
  • Little Angel Theatre
  • Puppets in Prague School – online courses in marionette making

Degrees and postgraduate study

Whilst there are no degrees that are specifically in marionette making, there are some that include an element of puppet making.

  • UAL: Wimbledon College of the Arts offer a postgraduate course MA Puppetry
  • Royal Central School of Speech and Drama are no longer offering a BA in Puppetry but an MA course is currently under development (2023).

Craftspeople currently known

  • Lyndie Wright – Little Angel Theatre (designer and puppet maker, marionettes as a key craft)
  • John Roberts – Puppet Craft UK (director and puppet maker, marionettes as a key craft)
  • Stephen Mottram
  • Stan Middleton – Puppet Barge
  • Chris Sommerville (The Harlequin) (maybe only performing)
  • Oliver Hymans – Little Angel Theatre
  • Sarah Wright – Curious School of Puppetry  (performer and puppet maker including marionettes)
  • Jan Zalud (automata maker and puppet carver including marionettes)
  • Peter O’Rourke (designer and puppet maker including marionettes)
  • Andrew Grundon
  • Sarah Vigars
  • Nik Palmer – Noisy Oyster
  • Tony Sinnett

Other information

There are various collections of historic marionettes in the UK:

  • British Museum collection
  • Horniman Museum collection
  • National Puppetry Archive
  • V&A puppet archive


  • Ysenda Maxtone Graham, writing for The Spectator, Dec 17 2022, The puppetry renaissance: But the most enchanting and emotionally engaging kind of puppet of all, the marionette, is still critically endangered
  • Carve a marionette by John Roberts
  • John McCormick, The Victorian Marionette Theatre, 2004
  • Max Von Boehn, A Photographic Guide to Marionettes in the Nineteenth Century, 2011
  • George Speaight, History of the English Puppet Theatre, 1990
  • Ken Barnard, Life and Travels of Richard Barnard – Marionette Proprietor, 1981
National Lottery Heritage Fund
Swire Charitable Trust
The Royal Mint
Pilgrim Trust
Maxwell/Hanrahan Foundation
William Grant Foundation

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