Heritage Crafts

Hat block making

The making of the blocks, either in wood or metal, on which hats are made.
Craft category
Metal, Wood
Historic area of significance
Stockport and Luton
Area practiced currently
Greater Manchester, Cheshire, Bedfordshire Wiltshire, West Midlands.
Origin in the UK
Structured hats and felt hats were worn as early as the 14th century, which would have needed wooden forms to create the shapes that are depicted from that age.
Current No. of professionals (Main income)
3 businesses
Current No. of professionals (Side income)


A hat block is used in the process of shaping and stiffening hat forms. Each block is created
to form the style and size of the finished hat. Some hats require a block for the brim and a
block for the crown, dependent on the style of hat being formed. Crowns have measured
holes in the bottom, these are for hat stands which gives a better working height, makes the
hat easier to be shaped when they are blocked and enables the newly formed hat to be
pulled of the block with greater ease. The types of wood used to make the hat blocks often
depends on the country of their origin. In Luton, seasoned Sycamore and Alder were often

In the process of forming a hat block, measurements must be carefully taken, ensuring that
all the pieces align. Some blocks are divided into sections, commonly five. This allows the
different pieces to be taken apart and assembled back together and allows the block to beremoved without deforming the hat. Wooden hat blocks are essential to make hats for small
bespoke commissions.

Aluminium is a more modern process developed for factories to produce long production
runs where hats are blocked on a machine. The pans are in two parts, male and female. The
metal will withstand the pressure, heat and steam of the blocking machines. Examples in
museum collections show that metal blocks have also made from iron and spelter.
In hat factories milliners used cheaper plaster blocks to check size and shape. There were
also blocks made of ‘composition’ materials.

Although hat blocks probably date to the earliest shaped hats, the first reference to a Hat-
Block Turner appears in 1724. Hat Block Making was considered a highly skilled trade, a Master Blockmakers’ Association was formed in 1896. Within the hat industries of Greater Manchester, Luton and Warwickshire, the making of hat blocks was often kept as a specific department within the factory. Hat blocks are closely related to the final design and had to be kept secret from competitors. Blockmakers working outside the company building were expected to keep their work secret and could be identified in Luton as they walked through the town carrying the blocks in sacks.


  • Experience with traditional hand woodworking tools
  • Ability to work to fine tolerances and finishes
  • Joinery
  • Wood-carving
  • Sculpture
  • Wood turning
  • Hand tools used include: planes, spokeshaves, gouges, hand saws, rasps.

Also need to have experience using common woodworking machinery including planer/thicknesser, bandsaw, lathe, sanders, routers etc. as well as hand operated power tools.

Specialist techniques are required for making aluminium blocks, such as casting and making a plaster or wood form for the cast.


  • Wooden hat block making – these are mostly supplied to milliners for small, bespoke commissions
  • Metal hat block making – these are supplied to companies who mass produce hats. This is the most endangered part of the craft with only one remaining manufacturer in Luton.

Issues affecting the viability

  • The making of aluminium hat blocks is now carried out by one company, Boon & Lane, in Luton. The decline of the hat making trade in Luton could threaten the hat block making trade in turn.
  • The current energy costs are creating a real and serious threat to ongoing viability.
  • Boon and Lane are the last licenced foundry in the centre of Luton.

Support organisations


Training organisations


Craftspeople currently known

Other information



  • Stockport Hat Works Museum
  • Wardown House Museum and Art Gallery, Luton*
    *Holds a large collection of hat blocks from the early 1800s onwards, blockmaking tools,
    photographs, literature.
National Lottery Heritage Fund
Swire Charitable Trust
The Royal Mint
Pilgrim Trust
Maxwell/Hanrahan Foundation
William Grant Foundation

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